How to determine the technological parameters of laser cutting?

- Aug 14, 2020-

The composition of laser cutting equipment

Laser cutting equipment is mainly composed of laser, light guide system, CNC motion system, automatic cutting head, working platform and high-pressure gas blowing system.Many parameters affect the laser cutting process, some of which depend on the technical performance of the laser and the machine tool, while others vary.The main parameters of laser cutting are:


The main parameters of laser cutting

[1] Beam mode

Fundamental mode, also known as Gaussian mode, is the most ideal mode for cutting, which mainly occurs in low-power lasers with power less than 1kW.Multi-mode is a mixture of higher-order modes. Under the same power, multi-mode laser has poor focusing and low cutting ability. The single-mode laser has better cutting ability and quality than multi-mode laser.

[2] Laser power

The laser power required by laser cutting mainly depends on the cutting material, material thickness and cutting speed requirements.Laser power has great influence on cutting thickness, cutting speed and cutting width.With the increase of laser power, the thickness of the material can be cut is also increased, the cutting speed is accelerated, and the incision width is also increased.


[3] Focus position

The focus position has great influence on the notch width.Generally, the selection focus is located at about 1/3 thickness below the surface of the material where the cutting depth is the maximum and the width of the mouth is the minimum.

[4] Focal moment

When cutting thick steel plate, the beam with long focal moment should be used to get the cutting surface with good perpendicularity.When the focal depth is large, the spot diameter also increases, and the power density decreases accordingly, which means that the cutting speed decreases.To maintain a certain cutting speed, the laser power should be increased.It is advisable to use a light beam with a small focal length to cut the thin plate, so that the spot diameter is small, the power density is large and the cutting speed is fast.

[5] Auxiliary gases

Cutting low carbon steel using oxygen as cutting gas, in order to use iron - oxygen combustion reaction heat to promote the cutting process, and cutting speed, good cutting quality, can be obtained without slag cut.The pressure increases, kinetic energy increases and slag discharge capacity increases.The cutting pressure is determined according to material, plate thickness, cutting speed and cutting surface quality.


[6] Nozzle structure

The structure and shape of the nozzle and the size of the outlet also affect the quality and efficiency of laser cutting. Different nozzles are selected for different cutting requirements.Common nozzle shapes are: cylindrical, conical, square and other shapes.Laser cutting generally adopts coaxial (airflow and optical axis concentric) blowing mode, such as airflow and optical axis is not coaxial, so when cutting easy to produce a large number of spatter.In order to ensure the stability of the cutting process, the distance between the nozzle end face and the workpiece surface is usually controlled, which is usually 0.5 ~ 2.0mm, so that the cutting can proceed smoothly.

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